|1 ||100 |
- First nations beginnings in North America
|2 ||1000 |
- First Vikings presence in Newfoundland
|3 ||1492 |
|4 ||1497 |
- "Jean Cabot"
 , an italian navigator, explores the golf of the St-Laurence on behalf of England.
|5 ||1519 |
- "Alonso Alvarez de Pineda" leads an expedition along the north coast of the Golf of Mexico where he discovers an entrance to great river, possibly the Mississippi.
|6 ||1524 |
- Exploration east coast of north america, from Florida to Cap-Breton, by "Jean de Verrazano"  an Italian explorer, on behalf of France.
He uses the term "Arcadie" to describe these lands in his report to "François 1ier", the king France.
|7 ||1534 |
- The explorer
"Jacques Cartier" claim possession of Canada, in the name of the King of France. A 40 foot wooden cross is erected on the Gaspé peninsula staking the claim.
|8 ||1542 |
- The Spanish aventurer "Hernando de Soto" dies on the shores Mssissippi river, nearby what is today Memphis. "Mississippi" is an "Ojibwa" word which mean "big or great river".
|9 ||1604 |
- First permanent french settlement on north American soil carried out by "Samuel de Champlain"  at Sainte-Croix island (today Dochet island, an american possession since 1789).
The settlement was composed of twenty buldings including a church, a kitchen, a bakery, a forge, a general store, a few wells, a store house for provisions, a communal hall and living quarters for the crew. Half of the inhabitants died during the course of the first winter. The sites was abandonned on the 15 juin 1605.
|10 ||1606 |
- The first play to be performed on north american soil.
"Marc Lescarbot"  writes a play (title: Neptune) to signal the return of "Jean de Poutrincourt" and "Samuel de Champlain" who had been gone on a 2 months trip to explore more indepth the shores of the St-John river. The play was performed on the boat gone to meet the exploration party upon it's return. Upon returning to France, "Marc Lescarbot" wrote "The story of New France" which was published in 1609.
- The first north american social club, "l'Ordre du Bon Temps" ("the order of the good times").
The brain child of "Samuel de Champlain", the ordre was designed to alleviate the bordom over the long winter months. The gathering (read feast) were held twice a month in the "sieur de Poutrincourt's" residence. Each gathering was organised by a different settler (crewman).
|11 ||1607 |
|12 ||1608 |
- Founding of Québec city by "Samuel de Champlain".
Not having lost hope in the America's, the "sieur de Du Gua de Monts" finances several expeditions along the St-Laurence valley (Canada). After the founding of Québec, settlers slowly disperse along the shores of the St-Laurence river.
|13 ||1620 |
- The “Mayflower”, an English ship transporting English Separatists, better known as the Pilgrims, arrives on the North American coast at Plymouth, Massachusetts from Southampton, England.
The vessel left England on September 16 and after a gruelling 66-day journey marked by disease, the ship dropped anchor inside the hook tip of Cape Cod (Provincetown Harbor) on November 21. The Mayflower originally destined for the mouth of the Hudson River, near present-day New York City, went off course as the winter approached, and remained in Cape Cod Bay. On March 28, 1621, all surviving passengers, who had inhabited the ship during the winter, moved ashore at Plymouth, and on April 15, the Mayflower, a privately commissioned vessel, returned to England.
|14 ||1621 |
- The king of England grants the territory of Acadia to the Scott "William Alexandre"  , who renames it to "Nova Scotia".
|15 ||1624 |
|16 ||1629 |
- The Kirkes forced Champlain to surrender at Quebec in 1629. The Kirkes were a father and 3 sons who started as privateers, but got official support when they took Quebec in 1629. [Clark, p. 84]
Voltaire called Canada a patch of snow. Speaking of Kirke’s expedition in 1628, he says “He took possession of the whole of Acadia. That is to say, he destroyed the huts of a few fishermen.”
|17 ||1632 |
- The Saint-Germain-en-Laye treaty returns “Acadia” and “New-France” (i.e., Canada) to France.
“Isaac de Razilly” is made lieutenant-general of the king in “Acadia”. “Acadia” is now under the stewardship of two men. Carelessly the French bureaucrats attributed vital areas of each territory to the control of the other.
|18 ||1634 |
|19 ||1642 |
- Founding of Montréal city.
|20 ||1667 |
- England commits to return Acadia to France as part of the “Bréda” treaty.
|21 ||1682 |
- The French explorer the “Sieur de La Salle” is the first to descend the “Mississippi” to his mouth. He takes possession of the territory which he calls “Louisiana” in honor of the king “Louis XIV”.
|22 ||1686 |
- First settling of French colonists on banks of the “Mississippi” at around the state of “Arkansas”.
|23 ||1689 |
- 5 Aug: On the rainy morning of August 5, 1689, Iroquois warriors used surprise to launch their night-time raid against the undefended settlement of Lachine. They travelled up the Saint Lawrence River by boat, crossed Lake Saint-Louis, and landed on the south shore of Montreal Island. While the colonists slept, the invaders surrounded their homes and waited for their leader to signal when the attack should begin. They attacked the homes, breaking down doors and windows, and dragging the colonists outside, where many were killed. When some of the colonists barricaded themselves within the village's structures, the attackers set fire to the buildings and waited for the settlers to flee the flames. According to a 1992 article, the Iroquois, wielding weapons such as the tomahawk, killed 24 French and took more than 70 prisoners. Other sources, such as Encyclopædia Britannica, claim that 250 settlers and soldiers lost their lives during the “Massacre.” The Iroquois wanted to avenge the 1,200,000 bushels of corn burned by the French, but since they were unable to reach the food stores in Montreal, they kidnapped and killed the Lachine crop producers instead. Lachine was the main departure point for westward traveling fur traders, which may have provided extra motivation for the Mohawk attack.
|24 ||1690 |
|25 ||1701 |
- 4 Aug: The Great Peace of Montreal was a peace treaty between New France and 40 First Nations of North America. It was signed on August 4, 1701, by Louis-Hector de Callière, governor of New France, and 1300 representatives of 40 aboriginal nation.
It provided 16 years of peaceful relations and trade before war started again. Present for the diplomatic event were the various peoples part the Iroquois confederacy, the Huron peoples, and the Algonquian peoples. 
|26 ||1702 |
- First French colonist start inhabiting Alabama.
- Start of Queen Ann's War  (1702-1713).
Hostilities between the French and English restart.
|27 ||1703 |
- Worried about the Anglo-Abenaki accords, the French under Vaudreuil’s command
attack the New-England states.
|28 ||1713 |
|29 ||1719 |
- Beginning of the construction of fort at Louisbourg, a fortified town which was only completed on the eve of the first siege in 1745.
|30 ||1737 |
- Diseases brought by sailors & settlers were passed to the MicMac & settlers. Between 1737 and 1757 more than three quarters of the Mic Mac perished because of the ensuing plagues after contact with the Europeans.
|31 ||1745 |
- First siege     and capture of Fortress "Louisbourg" by the British.
Within 46 days of the invasion the fortress was captured. To the chagrin of the New Englanders, only three years later the town was restored to the French by the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle.
|32 ||1746 |
- Duc d'Anville   with 70 ships and over 10,000 men leaves France to retake Louisbourg, Annapolis Royal and to sack New England. Fleet was to rendevous with French ships from the west Indies and rangers and Indians from Quebec. The fleet was decimated by repeated storms and disease. The fleet arrived three months after it left France. Duc d'Anville died from medicene taken to relieve the symptoms caused by a brain tumor. Many perished in Bedford basin, much of the remainder of the fleet was destroyed by bad weather on the way back to France. Several ships proceeded to Annapolis but decided not to attack because of the presence of British Men O'War.
|33 ||1747 |
- 11 Feb: Attack at Grand-Pré
Grand-Pré was the scene of a surprise attack on Col. Arthur Noble's detachment of British troops from Massachusetts who were billeted in the houses of inhabitants. French and Indian forces under the direction Coulon de Villiers broke into the British Quarter at 3 A.M. during a blinding snowstorm. After a plucky fight in which sixty English were killed, among them Colonel Noble, and seventy more wounded, Captain Benjamin Goldthwaite, who had assumed the command, surrendered.
|34 ||1748 |
|35 ||1754 |
|36 ||1755 |
- The “grand dérangement” (i.e., the great disturbance) and the deportation of the Acadians.
Contrary to the popular belief the deportation of the Acadians was not an event but rather a series of events which lasted of 1755-1763. The deportation of “Beausecour” and “Grand-Pré” affected approximately 3,000 Acadians. By the end of the deportations nearly 10,000 Acadians were deported. Five thousand (5,000) others finds refuge in the wood, in Quebec or in France.
- The British are defeated by the French at the Battle of the Monogahela River   (a.k.a. The Braddock expedition or Braddock defeat).
George Washington with no official position in the chain of command was able to impose and maintain some order and formed a rear guard, which allowed the force to evacuate and eventually disengage from the battle. This earned him the nickname Hero of the Monongahela, by which he was toasted, and established his fame for some time to come.
|37 ||1756 |
- The “Seven Years'” war determines the fate of News-France.
In the search of new territories to be colonized, the increasing population of the British colonies in North America crosses the Appalachian Mountains towards the Ohio valley. Alarmed by this intrusion, the French and the First Nations Peoples expel the colonists in 1754, and an un-declared war erupts between the French and British colonies. Starting in 1755, Great Britain and France send thousands of professional soldiers to North America. In 1756, the engagements begin in Europe and the two nations officially declare war. In spite of several impressive victories by the Canadians, the French and the natives in the Ohio valley, along the shores of Lake Ontario and around Lake Champlain, Great Britain gains the upper hand. A British naval force isolates New-France while British troops attack “Louisbourg” in 1758. The fortress is taken after a seven week siege, leaving Quebec vulnerable to attack.
|38 ||1758 |
- Second siege of the Fortress Louisbourg   by the British.
Without a strong navy to patrol the sea beyond its walls, Louisbourg was impossible to defend. Attacking with 13,100 troops supported by a 1,400 crew on board 144 ships, a British army captured the fortress in seven weeks. Determined that Louisbourg would never again become a fortified French base, the British demolished the fortress walls.
|39 ||1759 |
- Quebec capitulates to the British following the battle of the Plains of Abraham  .
In June 1759, the British navy transport arrives in Quebec with major-general James Wolfe and a powerful army. Unable to overcome the city fortifications, abrupt cliffs and the stone walls, Wolfe bombards Quebec for two months. Nearing the point of failure, the British take a small harbour about three kilometres to the west of the city walls. Wolfe and 4800 soldiers land unnoticed by the French during the night of the 13 September 1759. They climb the cliffs and make their way to the Plains of Abraham. The marquis de “Montcalm”, the French commander, leaves the city for an advantageous position right out of the city and leads a battle with an army of 4500 soldiers made up the French regular force, Canadians and natives. The British are victorious following vicious 30 minutes battle. Both “Montcalm” and “Wolfe” are mortally wounded. Quebec capitulates five days later.
|40 ||1760 |
- British troops occupy what remained New-France, which will become a British colony in 1763.
French and Canadian survivors of the battle of the Plains of Abraham flee towards Montreal, but return in April 1760 and defeat the British at Saint-Foy, pushing them back behind the fortifications of Quebec City. The arrival of the British fleet in May forces the French and Canadians to retreat. That summer, three British forces converge on Montreal. One comings from Quebec city, another arriving by boat from lake Champlain, a third arriving from the head water of the St. Lawrence. With no hope of reinforcements from Europe, the French surrender on September 8th. The fight of the English and the French for supremacy in North America is almost finished.
|41 ||1762 |
- By the secret Treaty of Fontainebleau, France yields its distant and non-productive territories west of the Mississippi and New-Orleans to Spain. It will take 23 months for the colonists of Louisiana to learn that they are no longer subjects of France
|42 ||1763 |
- The Treaty of Paris  will put an end to the war and will yield New-France to Great Britain.
It is crucial turning point in the history of Canada. With the Treaty of Paris, the United Kingdom also acquires the territories of Louisiana east of the Mississippi and the North of New-Orleans. Spain on her part yields its territories of East and West Florida to the Great Britain. Bâton Rouge is fortified by the British and renamed “New Richmond”.
|43 ||1768 |
- On October 1, 1768 a troop of British regulars’ (soldiers) arrives in Boston, to maintain order. The locals react negatively to the presence of the Redcoats and act as if they were invaders. The local population having taken control of the reigns of local power prevent the soldiers from carrying out their duty. During the 18 months that follows, tension rises between the two groups.
|44 ||1770 |
- The Boston Massacre.
On March 5, 1770 the Twenty Ninth Regiment comes to relieve the Eighth Regiment on duty at the “Customs House” on “King” street (today “State” street). The soldiers, under the command of the Captain Thomas Preston, are greeted with a barrage of insults by an angry crowd of colonist that despise them. Unable to control or of disperse the shouting crowd, Captain Preston orders his troops not to shoot. In the tumult of the moment the soldiers do not understand and fire on crowd killing three men. Two others died of their wound following the incident.
The Boston Massacre is not actually a massacre in itself as only 5 people died. It was a massacre in the sense that the authority of the English regime will no longer be tolerated by the local population. This incident marked the beginning of the end with regard to the presence of the British authority in North America.
|45 ||1773 |
- 16 Dec: The Boston Tea Party.
On December 16, 1773 a group of Bostonians, some disguised as Native Americans, board British ships carrying chests of tea and dump the contents into Boston Harbor to protest the Tea Act, a widely resented duty on tea. The so-called Boston Tea Party leads the British Parliament to impose the ”Intolerable Acts”, which close the port of Boston to trade, and further alienate the American colonists, who rebel in the American Revolution (1775-1783).
|46 ||1774 |
- The Boston Port Bill.
When news of the destruction of the tea reaches the British Parliament measures of an extreme severity are adopted. Lord North asks that Parliament proceed without fear and with firmness. Boston is seen as the center of all the disorder in the English colonies. Inflicting a single penalty on the whole city is seen as a manner of striking a blow at the source of the problem. It is thus proposed that the Port of Boston be closed, and that no good be allowed to enter or to leave the city.
This prohibition was to continue until the citizens of the city has shown recognition of their error and it had compensated the authorities for the losses incurred. The crown seeing of such an act of recognition could then give the city back the privileges thus lost.
Motion was adopted and the Port was closed.
- The first Continental Congress of the American colonies meets in Philadelphia.
The idea of this meeting was put forward by Benjamin Franklin the previous year but lacked support before the adoption of the “Boston Port Bill” by the British Parliament. Twelve of the thirteen English colonies send delegates. Georgia abstains because it needs the support of the English soldiers to defend against attacks along its border. The Congress, which sat until October, did not preach independence; It rather sought to correct the wrong that was inflicted with the colonies on behalf of England and to present a unified voice back to London.
|47 ||1775 |
- British and Canadians cooperate to defend Canada during the war of American independence [American Revolution] .
Fifteen years after the rendering of Montreal, the governor to Sir Guy Carleton reconstitutes the Canadian militia. This measure will be put to test in 1775 when, discouraged by attempts of the British to raise taxes to pay for the Seven Year war, the American colonies rebel. Two American armies, wanting to weaken the position of the British in North America, invade Canada. One arriving from Lake Champlain takes Montreal and walk on to Quebec [The battle of Québec] . There it joins a second army arriving with by land through Maine. On December 31, 1775, a force of British regular soldiers and French and Anglophone militiamen inflicts a sever defeat to the attackers. The Americans remain outside of Quebec, suffering of the cold, the hunger and diseases. In May 1776, British reinforcements arrive by sea and the Americans withdraw.
- The battles of Lexington and Concord.
The first shots which begin the revolution American are fired in Lexington in Massachusetts. On April 18, 1775, the General British Thomas Gage sends 700 soldiers to destroy the armaments and ammunition stored by the colonists in Concord a suburb of Boston.
- Second Continental Congress of the American colonies in Philadelphia.
The second Congress is inaugurated shortly after the battles of Lexington and Concord
The New England militia is camped at on Boston door step as it tries to push English out of Boston. The Congress recognizes the militia as the Continental Army that represents the thirteen States and it elects George Washington as Commander and Chief of the Continental Army.
|48 ||1776 |
- The Declaration of Independence  by the American colonies.
The creation of the United States has a major incidence on Canadian society and poses a serious military threat.
|49 ||1779 |
- Eruption of the war between Spain and Brittain.
The Spanish governor Bernardo de Galvez attacks and captures the British Fort at Baton-Rouge Louisiana.
|50 ||1783 |
- The British recognize the independence of the United States (Treaty of Paris).
Approximately 40,000 American loyalist having supported Great Britain during the war of Independence take refuge in Canada.
|51 ||1784 |
- The Loyalist   presence adds an important Anglophone presence to the population of Canada and leads to the creation of New Brunswick in 1784 and the division of Quebec in two parts in 1791, Upper and Lower-Canada (now Ontario and Quebec).
|52 ||1787 |
|53 ||1789 |
- 4 Mar: The new American government begins its operations.
- 30 Apr: “George Washington  ” is inaugurated as the first American President.
|54 ||1799 |
- American President “George Washington” dies at Mt. Vernon.
|55 ||1800 |
- Founding of the first settlement on northern bank of the Ottawa river near the Chaudière falls by “Philimon Wright  ” a Massachusetts industrialist. The settlement is called “Wrightville” (Wright village) until 1875, when it was incorporated as the town of Hull.
|56 ||1803 |
- The United States acquires the Louisiana territories from “Napoleon” (France) for the sum of $15 000 000 [Louisiana Purchase].
|57 ||1808 |
- Act of US Congress: Prohibition of the Slave Trade.
The U.S. Constitution of 1789 includes a provision on the abolition of the slave trade. Article I, section 9 of the Constitution states:
The Migration or Importation of such Persons as any of the States now existing shall think proper to admit, shall not be prohibited by the Congress prior to the Year one thousand eight hundred and eight, but a Tax or duty may be imposed on such Importation, not exceeding ten dollars for each Person.
This provision effectively gave Congress the power to prohibit the importation of slaves (exclusion power) and to impose an import tax on each slave, but delayed the exclusion power until 1808. The slave import tax was proposed several times but never adopted by the federal government. Congress exercised this Constitutional power in the Act to Prohibit the Importation of Slaves, passed on March 2, 1807 (2 Stat. 426). The Constitution required that the effective date be delayed until January 1, 1808.
|58 ||1812 |
- 18 Jun: Start of the War of 1812 between the United States of America and the British Empire.
The War of 1812 began June 18, 1812, and lasted until early 1815. President James Madison requested a declaration of war to protect American ships from being stopped and searched by the British. He also wanted to prevent Britain from forming alliances with Native Americans. His decision was influenced by Americans in the West and South, who hoped to expand the United States by seizing control of both Canada and Florida. American attempts to invade Canada during the war failed but U.S. forces won a number of important naval battles. British forces invaded parts of the United States and captured the American capital Washington, forcing President Madison to flee. Andrew Jackson decisively defeated the British at the Battle of New Orleans in 1815, after the Treaty of Ghent (1814) had already ended the war and returned captured territories. Americans saw the War of 1812 as a triumph that showed the new nation could fend off foreign threats.
|59 ||1813 |
- The American invasions are pushed back [the Battle of the Chateauguay]  .
In October 1813, the lieutenant-colonel Charles de Salaberry and 460 soldiers, especially of the French Canadian “Voltigeurs” (light infantry), push back 4000 American invaders along the Châteauguay river, south of Montreal. Members of the British regular forces demolish a second American column at Crysler's Farm, in eastern Ontario.
Violent confrontations along the border at Niagara and an American attack on York (Toronto) in 1813 and the success of the American navy on the lake Champlain in 1814 hardly change the military situation.
|60 ||1814 |
- In December 1814, Great Britain and the United States sign the Treaty of Ghent and return all the territories conquered.
The Canadians are deservadly proud of their role in the war, but the security of Canada had mostly been ensured by the efforts of a well trained members of the British regular forces.
|61 ||1826 |
- Installation of a settlement on southern bank of the Ottawa river near the Chaudière at the beginning of the construction of the Rideau canal  .
Following the war of 1812 against the American, the English authorities and Queen Victoria decide that the colonies British North America, supplied by the inland waterway of the Installation of a settlement on southern bank of the Ottawa river near the Chaudière at the beginning of the construction of the Rideau canal.
Following the war of 1812 against the American, the English authorities and Queen Victoria decide that the colonies British of the north, supplied by the inland waterway of the St-Laurence river need an alternate and secure navigable waterway to supply the areas of the southern portion of the colony (Kingston, Toronto). They choose to construct a canal passing from Kingston in the South to the Ottawa River in North following the current of the Rideau River. This route would circumvented areas of the St-Laurent that form the border between the United States and High-Canada. The construction of the canal began in 1826, under the direction of the lieutenant-colonel John By of British Royal Engineers. Over the next six years, this engineer and his team traversed difficult terrain, crossed mosquito infested marshes, and worked with very few financial means. Once finished, the canal became one of the greatest technical exploits of the XIXe century!
|62 ||1832 |
- Six years after the start of construction in 1826, the Rideau Canal is inaugurated.
|63 ||1837 |
- Rebellions in two Canada’s (War of the Patriots) (Upper-Canada Rebelion).
Political and cultural hostilities lead to armed rebellions in both Upper and Lower-Canada.
In Lower-Canada, an Anglophone elite consolidates power around itself and excludes in large part the French-speaking majority from power. In December 1837, the Patriots, mostly lightly armed the farmers led by Louis-Joseph Papineau, launch an insurrection (the war of the Patriots). British troops defeat them during violent clashes along Richelieu and Saint-Eustace rivers, close to Montreal. The second insurrection south of Montreal in 1838, also ends the defeat of the Patriots.
In December 1837, radicals of Upper-Canada led by “William Lyon Mackenzie”, irritated by political favouritism and corruption, try to take Toronto without success. Many of the rebels flee to the United States, where they will organize several raids against Upper-Canada in 1838. These rebellions are at the origin of the Union Act o f 1840, which in 1841 joins Upper and Lower-Canada to constitute the province of Canada.
|64 ||1838 |
|65 ||1839 |
- Death of Philimon Wright in Wrightville, today Gatineau Québec. The city is at that period in time one of the most important industrial wood working center in Canada.
|66 ||1841 |
- The Union Act joins together Upper and Lower-Canada to constitute the province of Canada.
|67 ||1844 |
- A new suspension bridge known as the “Union Bridge” is opened to traffic between the town of Ottawa (Upper Canada) and the town of Hull (Low Canada).
|68 ||1848 |
- 27 Apr: In the Name of the French People
The Provisional Government,
Whereas slavery is an affront to human dignity;
that in destroying man’s free will, it suppresses the natural principle of law and duty;
that it is a flagrant violation of the republican tenets of liberty, equality, fraternity.
Whereas if effective measures do not quickly following the proclamation already made of the principle of abolition, the most deplorable disorders in the colonies may result,
It is decreed that:
Article 1: Slavery will be entirely abolished in all French colonies and possessions two months after the promulgation of the present decree in each of them. Dating from the promulgation of the present decree in the colonies, any corporal punishment and any sale of unfree persons will be absolutely forbidden.
Article 2: The system of indentured servitude in Senegal is hereby suppressed.
Article 3: The governors or commisioners of the Republic are charged with applying all measures required to assure liberty in Martinique, in Guadeloupe and its dependencies, in the Isle of Réunion, in Guiana, in Senegal and other French settlements of the west coast of Africa, in the Isle of Mayotte and its dependencies and in Algeria.
Article 4: Amnesty is granted to former slaves sentenced to corporal or correctional punishments for actions which, if imputed to free men, would not have led to punishment. Administratively deported individuals are hereby recalled.
Article 5: The National Assembly will decide on the amount of the indemnity to be paid to colonists
Article 6: Purged of servitude, the colonies and the possessions of India will be represented at the National Assembly.
Article 7: The principle that holds that the soil of France frees the slave who touches it applies to the colonies and possessions of the Republic.
Article 8: Henceforth, even in a foreign country, it is forbidden to any Frenchman to own, buy, or sell slaves, and to participate, whether directly or indirectly, in any traffic or commerce of this sort. Any infraction will lead to the loss of French citizenship. Nevertheless Frenchmen who find themselves under these prohibitions, at the moment of the promulgation of the present decree, will have a delay of three years to bring themselves into conformity with it. Those who become owners of slaves in foreign countries by inheritance, gift or marriage will be obliged, under the same penalty, to free them or dispose of them within the same time period, beginning from the date when their possession will have begun.
Article 9. The Ministry of the Navy and the Colonies, and the Ministry of War, are charged, each insofar as it concerns them, with the execution of the present decree.
Done in Paris, in Government council, April 27, 1848
Dupont (de l’Eure), Lamartine, Armand Marrast, Garnier-Pagès, Albert, Marie, Ledru-Rollin, Flocon, Crémieux, Louis Blanc, Arago.
The Secretary-General of the Provisional Government:
|69 ||1851 |
- “Ezra-Butler Eddy” arrives at the village of “Wright”, today Gatineau, Quebec, Canada with his wife and begins to manufacture and sell matches (E.B.Eddy Company).
|70 ||1857 |
- Ottawa is select as the capital of the new province of Canada (created following the fusion Upper and Lower-Canada, embryos of the current provinces of Ontario and of Quebec). It is there that the new Parlement of Canada will be built.
|71 ||1859 |
- Once the architects chosen to construct the new parliament  of Canada, the construction work starts. On December 20, 1859 excavation work begins. The first stones are laid on April 16, 1860. The scale of the project is enormous, it is the largest construction project to have been carried out in North America, it is large even according to European criteria. Public works and the architects are overwhelmed by the size of the undertaking.
|72 ||1861 |
- “Abraham Lincoln” is inaugurated as President of the United States.
- Construction on the Parliament buildings of the United Canada’s is stopped.
The size of the project and construction difficulties have put the project in jeopardy. A commission is struck to analyse the problems and take corrective actions. All contracts are cancelled and over 1300 people are put out of work.
- Beginning of the American Civil war (the War Between the States).
|73 ||1863 |
- Start of the American Reconstruction era that will end in 1877
- Construction work on the Parliament of the United Province of Canada restarts.
New contracts are signed with the architects and everyone seems to have drawn lessons from their errors.
Three years later, the first and the only session of the Parliament of the United Province of Canada proceeded in the new building. Since the beginning of the project, great changes have started to occur on the political scene.
- President Lincoln makes the “Emancipation Proclamation”, abolishing slavery in the states of the Union.
- The longest siege of the American military history takes place Port Hudson (American Civil war).
|74 ||1864 |
|75 ||1865 |
- On the evening of April 14, 1865, while attending a special performance of the comedy, "Our American Cousin", President Abraham Lincoln was shot.
Accompanying him at Ford's Theater that night were his wife, "Mary Todd Lincoln”, a twenty-eight year-old officer named Major "Henry R. Rathbone", and Rathbone's fiancee, "Clara Harris". After the play was in progress, a figure with a drawn derringer pistol stepped into the presidential box, aimed, and fired. The president slumped forward.
The assassin, "John Wilkes Booth", dropped the pistol and waved a dagger. Booth leapt from the balcony and caught the spur of his left boot on a flag draped over the rail, and shattered a bone in his leg on landing. Though injured, he rushed out the back door, and disappeared into the night on horseback.
|76 ||1867 |
- Acquisition of Alaska by the "The United States of América" (USA).
The Alaska Purchase (otherwise known as Seward's Folly or Seward's Icebox) by the United States from the Russian Empire occurred in 1867 at the behest of Secretary of State "William Seward". The territory purchased was 586,412 square miles (1,518,800 km²)and became the basis of the modern state of Alaska.
- With the adoption of the “British North America Act”  in 1867, Canada became a dominion of the British Commonwealth and "John A. Macdonald" became the Prime Minister of Canada. However, that did not mean that it was an entirely independent country, they remained a British colony for many years.
In 1867, alarmed by raids and wanting to mutually defend themselves against the persistent threat posed by the United States, the provinces of Upper and Lower- Canada, divided between Ontario and Quebec, as well as New Brunswick and Nova Scotia unite to form the new Dominion of Canada, an autonomous British colony. Three provinces joined the new Confederation: the province of Canada (which became Ontario and Quebec later), Nova Scotia and New Brunswick.
The British North America Act was to balance the forces which wanted to divide the old province of Canada with the forces which had united all the provinces. Here are the major elements:
- Capacity of the governor general to revoke any provincial law one year after having obtained copy of the legislation.
- The division of the power between the federal Parliament and the provinces.
- The Parliament could assume all powers not allocated in a specific way and had the capacity to act for “peace, order and the good government”.
Thus, the provinces had guaranteed powers in certain fields such as education. Quebec could preserve its civil law and its distinct character was recognized. The federal government, however, was in theory more powerful than its counterparts in the United States or in Switzerland, and its power was increased by the power of the governor general in council to name the senators.
|77 ||1869 |
- In 1869, Canada buys from the Hudson Bay Company an enormous territory in the West and sends land-surveyors to the area around the Red river. To protect their cultural and territorial rights, the Métis (people of indigenous and European ascent) form a provisional government. Led by “Louis Riel”  , they start negotiations with Ottawa and obtain for the territory of Manitoba the statute of province, but enter into conflict with colonists from Ontario wishing an immediate annexation to Canada. British troops supported by Canadian militiamen undertake the exhausting trek to the red river to establish the authority of Canada.
|78 ||1870 |
|79 ||1871 |
|80 ||1873 |
|81 ||1880 |
- The Saint-Jean-Baptist Society (Québec) invites all the French-speaking people of North America to take part in a great national congress. A delegation of a hundred the Acadian, lead by the Pierre Amand Landry , goes to Quebec. The organizers of the congress reserved the Seventh commission of the congress for the Acadian delegates, so that the latter could discuss their future. One of the resolutions of the commission, known as the Acadian Commission, was to convene the first Acadian national Convention in Memramcook in 1881.
It is for this event that Calixa Lavallée first wrote the music what was to become the Canadian national anthem (O’ Canada).
|82 ||1885 |
|83 ||1898 |
|84 ||1899 |
- The South Africa war (Second Boer War) (1899-1902) is the first time that Canada officially dispatched troops to fight in a war being held overseas. More than seven thousand Canadians, including twelve nurses, served in South Africa, and their experience led to the reform of Canadian armed forces, on the brink of the First World War.
|85 ||1900 |
- The Hull / Ottawa Fire is Hull’s fifth important.
The fire of 1900 is the greatest fire of the history of Hull. The fire was so intense that the flames crossed the Ottawa River and destroyed a fifth of the city of Ottawa.
It began on around 10:45 a.m. the morning of April 26, 1900 when a chimney fire started at 101 Chaudière Street. The residence was inhabited by the Guimond family who became the new tenants the previous day. After the fire, it was established that Guimond were in no way responsible for the fire because the chimney was defective and having only arrived the day before, they had obviously not been able to have it checked.
At the start of the fire, the Hull fire department called to put out the fire but on their arrival, the flames pushed by a 65 km/h wind of had already propagated the fire to adjacent houses. Seeing the threat a call for immediate assistance was made to the Ottawa department. But even with the assistance of the latter, as well as others from the E. B. Eddy company fire brigade, the blaze could not be controlled. The high winds kept blowing pieces of burning roofing shingle on to the roof of the houses until then untouched by the flames. The heat of the blazing inferno was so intense that firemen couldn’t get closer than 30 meters t the fire.
Within 45 minutes the flames had devastated part of Chaudière, Wright, Wellington and Main streets. The small clapboards built houses in close proximity each other, were reduced ashes in less than ten minutes. Embers borne by strong northerly winds ignited lumber yards on the Ontario shore line near the Lebreton Flats. At 12:18 p.m. the alarm was sounded in Ottawa. By 1:00 p.m. one the third of the city of Hull was nothing more than one immense cluster of embers.
In addition to the houses, the flames also attacked the city industries. They destroyed the E. B. Eddy company lumber yards, those of Hull Lumber, the paper manufacture as well as the Eddy match factory where thousands of cases of matches were stored. On the Ontario side of the River The Canadian Pacific Union Station and freight sheds on Lebreton Flats were completely destroyed. At one point the fire had become so large that the Aylmer fire department was called upon, as well as those of Montreal at the request of the federal government.
In addition to the houses and factories, fire devastated all of Hull’s Main Street, the registry office with all the title documents, the Law courts, whose door of the vault had remained opened, and part of the prison. With the Law courts, the copies of all the registers of baptism, marriage and burial of the parish Our-Lady-of-Grace were also destroyed. The originals were destroyed in the market fire of 1888.
“The Great Fire” destroyed approximately 1300 buildings in Hull over a surface of 111,5 hectares. In Ottawa over 1,700 homes were destroyed.
Though over 14,000 were left homeless, amazingly, only seven people died in the fire. (More people died of disease in the densely packed, unsanitary tent cities where the homeless were forced to live afterwards.)
|86 ||1901 |
- The opening of the “Alexandra” bridge, spanning the Ottawa river, between the towns of “Hull” and “Ottawa”.
|87 ||1905 |
|88 ||1914 |
- From 1914 to 1918, Europe and part of the world engages in the first all-out war (World War I) in the history. Each the adversaries mobilize the whole of its military, political and industrial capabilities to win, with large social and material consequences and costs for the civil populations.
- Assassination of the archduke François-Ferdinand, heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary  .
The attack, perpetrated in Sarajevo by young Serb nationalists, take place the very tense political context of the Balkans of the time. The Slavic people, supported by Russia, oppose Austro-Hungarian domination.
In reprisals for the murder, Vienna gives Serbia ultimatum the 23rd of July and declares war with Serbia on the 28th of July.
- 3 Aug: Germany declares war on France. (World War 1 - A short Timeline)
In a few days, the alliances game plunges almost all Europe in to war.
|89 ||1916 |
|90 ||1919 |
- Signing of the treaty of Versailles.
Germany is designated as being solely responsible for the First World War, Berlin loses more than 10% of its territory, all of its colonies and it commits to maintaining a reduced army. These very hard conditions will nourish the resentment of German nationalists during the period between wars, amongst them "Adolf Hitler".
|91 ||1920 |
- Beginning of a world wide economic depression (Great Depression).
Between 1920 and 1940 and especially between 1929 and 1939, there is a world wide economic depression and Canada was one of the most affected countries. Notwithstanding all political interventions, the country crumbles financially and economically.
|92 ||1939 |
- The beginning of the Second World War  .
From 1939 to 1945, Europe and a part of the world engage in the second all-out war (World) of the history.
"Adolf Hitler" and the Nazi party gained power in Germany in 1933 and were they did not take long to establish a merciless dictatorship. Germany seized Austria in 1938 and occupied Czechoslovakia in 1938-1939. Italy, another dictatorship, attacked Abyssinia (Ethiopia) in 1935 and occupied Albania in 1939. After having invaded Manchuria in 1931, Japan attacked China in 1937. Great Britain and France tried to mollify these cruel regimes in the hope of avoiding another world war, a policy which was approved the majority of Canadians. The Nazi military aggression led directly to the Second World War. In August 1939, Germany insisted that Poland yields territories to it. Finally giving up their policy of “appeasement”, Great Britain and France promised to help the Poles and to stop “Hitler". On September 1, 1939, Germany invaded Poland and, two days later, Great Britain and France declared the war on Germany. The Second World War had just started.
|93 ||1949 |
|94 ||1961 |
- The United States Congress passes the Civil Rights Act which forbid discrimination based on race, color, religion, sex or nationality.
|95 ||1968 |
- Birth of the “Partie Québécois”   , the first political party dedicated to achieving independence of Quebec.
- “Lundi de la matraque”.
290 people are arrested during the “Saint-Jean-Baptiste" parade in Montréal. "Pierre-Elliot Trudeau" the Prime Minister of Canada in a guest in the VIP grandstand along the parade route and this angers the assembled crowd. Crowd control police enter the crowd swinging their billy sticks and stop the riot.
- "Pierre-Elliott Trudeau" is the third Quebecker (Quebec resident)to be elected Prime Minister of Canada. At the beginning of his political career he obtains popularity levels not previously seen, he is adored by the crowds, it’s “Trudeau-mania”.
|96 ||1969 |
|97 ||1970 |
- The October crisis   .
Originally a revolutionary movement having a goal of emancipating the Québécois workers, the F.L.Q saga will come to a tragic end with the October Crisis. Members of the terrorist organization the “Quebec Liberation Front” (F.L.Q.) kidnap British Commercial Attaché "Richard Cross" and the Québéc Minister of Labour "Pierre Laporte". “Pierre Laporte” is executed and found dead in the trunk of a car. A proclamation is sent by the F.L.Q. to the press and is read on the airwaves of Radio-Canada. "Robert Bourassa", the Premiere of Québec, overwelmed by events, calls his federal counterpart. “Pierre Elliot Trudeau", Prime Minister of Canada, reacts drastically and passes the War Measures Act which suspends civil liberties and sends the Canadian army to occupy Montreal. Several innocent civilians were arrested without warrants in the middle of the night. They are imprisoned and several say they were subjected to psychological torture.
|98 ||1976 |
- The sovereignist “Parti Québécois” is elected as government in Quebec with "René Lévesque" at its leader.
|99 ||1977 |
- Adoption by the government of Quebec of the law 101 which makes of French the official language of Quebec and takes concrete measures to protect and to promote it.
French becomes the only language allowed in commercial signage and billposting. Gathered under the banner of “Alliance Quebec”, a group Anglo-Quebecquers financed by Ottawa contest the law in the courts and succeed in invalidating important sections of the law over several years.
|100 ||1980 |
- " Rene Lévesque" and the government of the “Parti Québécois” holds a referendum on the sovereignty of Quebec.
It uses a moderate approach and proposes to negotiate an agreement of “sovereignty-association” with Canada. Federalist forces, with "Pierre-Elliott Trudeau" at their head promise a great reform of Canada. In the end, 60% of Quebequers vote NO.
|101 ||1981 |
- The Night of the long knives.
The Prime Minister of Canada, "Pierre-Elliott Trudeau", invite all the provincial Premiers to negotiate the repatriation of, and modifications to the Canadian constitutions. In middle of the night, without informing "Rene Lévesque", the Premier Quebec, all the provincial Premiers secretly sign a new agreement. Learning of the agreement the next, "Rene Lévesque" furious, leaves Ottawa and returns to Québec. This fateful night was christened the “Night of the long knives”.
|102 ||1993 |
- "Jean Chrétien" is elected as new Prime Minister of Canada. The province of Quebec votes in majority for the “Bloc Québécois”, the new Québec sovereignist party, with Lucien Bouchard as its leader. The sovereignist “Bloc Québécois” becomes the official opposition in Ottawa.
|103 ||1995 |
- The "Parti Québécois" is re-elected in Quebec holds a second referendum on the sovereignty of Québec.
The result of the vote: NO at 50,6%. The margin is microscopic and does not represent a victory for anybody. In spite of his promises of reform and recognition of Quebec, "Jean Chrétien" the Canadian Prime Minister doesn't do anything to repair the situation and refuses to recognize the inhabitants of Quebec as nation or even a distinct entity. “Chrétien” strategy is rather to request that the Supreme Court to decide on the legality of any unilateral declaration independence of Quebec. He even denies the existence of a purely Québécois culture.
|104 ||1999 |
|105 ||2005 |
- 29 Aug: Hurricane Katrina causes millions to evacuate the state of Louisiana, many never to return to their homes.
The storm made its second landfall as a Category 3 storm on the morning of Monday, August 29 in southeast Louisiana. It caused severe destruction along the Gulf coast from central Florida to Texas, much of it due to the storm surge. The most severe loss of life and property damage occurred in New Orleans, Louisiana, which flooded when the levee system failed catastrophically, in many cases only hours after the storm had moved inland.
|106 ||2008 |
- The 400th anniversary of the foundation of "Québec" city and of the French presence in North America.